Ogle, S. M., P. R. Adler, F. J. Breidt, S. Del Grosso, A. Franzluebbers, M. Liebig, B. Linquist, G. P. Robertson, M. Schoeneberger, J. Six, C. van Kessel, R. Venterea, and T. West. 2014. Chapter 3: Quantifying greenhouse sources and sinks in cropland and grazing land systems. Pages 3.1-141 in M. Eve, D. Pape, M. Flugge, R. Steele, D. Man, M. Riley-Gilbert, and S. Biggar, eds. Quantifying greenhouse gas fluxes in agriculture and forestry: methods for entity-scale inventory. Technical Bulletin Number 1939. Office of the Chief Economist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., USA.

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This chapter provides methodologies and guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sinks at the entity scale for cropland and grazing land systems. More specifically, it focuses on methods for land used for the production of crops and livestock (i.e., grazing lands). Section 3.1 provides an overview of cropland and grazing land systems management practices and resulting GHG emissions, system boundaries and temporal scale, a summary of the selected methods/models, sources of data, and a roadmap for the chapter. Section 3.2 presents the various management practices that influence GHG emissions in upland and wetland cropping systems and land‐use change to cropland. Section 3.3 provides a similar discussion for grazing land systems and land‐use change to grazing systems. Section 3.4 discusses agroforestry, and Section 3.5 provides the estimation methods. Finally, Section 3.6 includes a summary of research gaps with additional information on the nitrous oxide (N2O) methodology and supplemental methodology guidance in the Appendices.

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