Sahli, H. F. and J. K. Conner. 2011. Testing for conflicting and nonadditive selection: floral adaptation to multiple pollinators through male and female fitness. Evolution 65:1457-1473.
Although conflicting selection from different resources is thought to play a critical role in the evolution of specialized species, the prevalence of conflicting selection in generalists is poorly understood. Plants may experience conflicting selection on floral traits by different pollinators and between genders. Using artificial selection to increase phenotypic variation, we tested for conflicting and nonadditive selection on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) flowers. To do this, we measured selection by each of the major pollinator taxa through both male and female fitness, and tested for a single-generation response to selection by a subset of these pollinators. We found some evidence for conflicting selection on anther exsertion—-sweat bees exerted stabilizing selection and larger bees selected for increased exsertion. Stamen dimorphism was only under selection by honey bees, causing a response to selection in the next generation, and flower size was under similar selection by multiple pollinators. Selection differed significantly between genders for two traits, but there was no evidence for stronger selection through male fitness or for conflicting selection between genders. Our results suggest wild radish flowers can adapt to multiple pollinators, as we found little evidence for conflicting selection and no evidence for nonadditive selection among pollinators.
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