Landowner Mail Survey on ‘Bioenergy and Land Use,’ Northern Michigan & Northern Wisconsin 2014 Responses (raw data)

This is the raw survey data from the 2014 survey

This datatable is part of the Landowner Mail Survey on ‘Bioenergy and Land Use,’ Northern Michigan & Northern Wisconsin dataset. The survey targeted unincorporated, private landowners. The goal of this mail survey was to explore landowners’ attitudes, perceptions, and willingness to grow energy crops and/or harvest timber residues in the northern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and in northern Wisconsin. A major objective was to predict the potential supply of land devoted to three potential bioenergy crops on three land types (cropland, farmable non-crop land [including pasture & grassland], forest land). The survey also included the potential for woody biomass sale as residue from timber harvest and tree thinning operations. The contingent valuation completely randomized experimental design covers four energy crops (corn, switchgrass, hybrid poplar trees, woody biomass residues) with four pre-defined rental rate offers ($15, $30, $60, $90 per acre; same rates used for woody biomass sale) for a total of 16 versions of the questionnaire (experimental design with prices offered appears on Survey Versions & Prices worksheet in the codebook file). The 4-wave direct mail survey asked landowners about their land uses, attitudes about their land, awareness of bioenergy crops, opinions about bioenergy and environment, concerns about land rental, and demographic background. The contingent valuation section asked for respondent willingness to rent each of the three land types for each of the three bioenergy crops, with specified rental rates following an orthogonal design. For woody biomass timber residues, respondents were asked about willingness to sell the biomass at the same one-time price as the poplar land rental rate.
The list frame sampled the population of rural land owners with plots of at least 10 acres (4 hectares). The two-stage stratified, clustered random sampling design began with selection and stratification of 18 counties by proportion of land in cropland and grassland (greater than and less 20% land cover, with 3 WI counties and 6 MI counties in each category). Next, within each county landholdings were obtained from property tax records, and landowners were stratified by a) area owned in the county (10-100 acres and over 100 acres) and b) forest orientation (proxied by participation in a forest management program: Wisconsin Managed Forest Law, Michigan Commercial Forest, or MI Qualified Forest Program). We drew 24 addresses at random from each stratum in (the smaller) Michigan counties and 48 from each stratum in (the larger) Wisconsin counties. Sampling probabilities appear on the Survey Weights worksheet in the codebook file. This resulted in a balanced final sample frame with 1152 landowners per state. Upon mailing out the study questionnaire to the selected landowner mailing addresses, 134 were returned as undeliverable or otherwise invalid. The final sampled population therefore consisted of 2170 valid addresses, from which 1124 completed questionnaires were returned before the survey closed. The survey began in October 2014 and was closed in May 2015 (but 1228 of the final 1258 returned questionnaires were received by Feb. 5, 2015).

Note

Experiment: Social Science Studies
Data available from: October 2014 to May 2015
Dataset: KBS120
Datatable ID: KBS120-001.173
Related Tables:
Related Files:
Personnel:
Last Updated 2017-01-26
Status
  • Completed
Variate Description Units
id farm identification number ( number )
coder first intial of data coder ( initial )
price corn rental rate offered for corn ($/acre)
price switch rental rate offered for switchgrass ($/acre)
price poplar rental rate offered for poplar ($/acre)
price slash rental rate offered for slash ($/acre)
1 own10 Owned more than 10 acres of undeveloped rural land in 2013 ( 1=yes, 0=no )
2 maindec Main decision maker ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a1 county Other county ( 19 )
a1 comment Name of other county ( text )
a2 Landowner owned rural land in more than one county ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a3 Total acres of rural land owned ( acres )
a4 Landowner rented out any of his/her rural land to others ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a4a Acres of rural land rented out to others ( acres )
a5 Landowner rented in rural land from others ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a5a Acres of rural land rented in from others ( acres )
a6 Landowner farmed any of the rural land he/she owned ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a7 Landowener grew corn or rented out land for corn production ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a8 Landowner had timber harvested from his/her rural land ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a8a Year of last timber harvest ( Integer (year) )
a9 corn corn on cropland ( acres )
a9 soy soybeans on cropland ( acres )
a9 wheat wheat on cropland ( acres )
a9 other row crops other row crops on cropland ( acres )
a9 hay rot hay or alfalfa on cropland in rotation with other crops ( acres )
a9 fruit fruit trees on cropland ( acres )
a9 fallow fallow or idle cropland ( acres )
a9 other cropland other cropland ( acres )
a9 expl other cropland other cropland explanation ( text )
a9 hay cont hay or alfalfa on farmable non-cropland, continuous ( acres )
a9 livestock pasture Livestock pasture on farmable non-cropland ( acres )
a9 open grass Grasses on farmable non-cropland ( acres )
a9 shrub Shrub or Scrub on farmable non-cropland ( acres )
a9 other noncrop Other farmable non-cropland ( acres )
a9 mx forest Mixed natural forest ( acres )
a9 single spec Single species tree plantations ( acres )
a9 other forest Other forest ( acres )
a9 expl other forest Other forest explain ( text )
a9 other rural Any other rural land (e.g. wetlands, lawn and garden) ( acres )
a9 other other Other land ( acres )
a9 expl other other Other ( text )
a10 crp Land enrolled in Conservation Reserve Program ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a10 csp Land enrolled in Conservation Stewardship Program ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a10 eqip Land enrolled in Environmental Quality Incentive Program ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a10 mfl Land enrolled in Managed Forest Law ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a10 cf Land enrolled in Commercial Forest Program ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a10 qf Land enrolled in Qualified Forest Program ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a10 other prog Land enrolled in Other Program ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a10 expl other prog Land enrolled in Other Program_explain ( text )
a11 Livestock raised on landowner's rural land ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a11a Number of cattle raised on rural land ( integer )
a11b Number of sheep & goats raised on rural land ( integer )
a11c Number of other livestock raised, excluding birds ( integer )
a12 ag ag income Cropland used for income from land rented out to agricultural or forest product growers or the sale of these products ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 ag rec income Cropland used for income from land rented out for recreation purposes (e.g., hunting, fishing, motorized recreation) ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 ag personal Cropland used for personal recreation (hunting, fishing, motorized recreation, hiking, solitude) ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 ag other Cropland used for other purposes ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 expl ag other Cropland used for other purposes_explain ( text )
a12 farm ag income Farmable non-cropland used for income from land rented out to agricultural or forest product growers or the sale of these products ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 farm rec income Farmable non-cropland used for income from land rented out for recreation purposes (e.g., hunting, fishing, motorized recreation) ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 farm personal Farmable non-cropland used for personal recreation (hunting, fishing, motorized recreation, hiking, solitude) ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 farm other Farmable non-cropland used for other purposes ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 expl farm other Farmable non-cropland used for other purposes_explain ( text )
a12 forest ag income Forested land used for income from land rented out to agricultural or forest product growers or the sale of these products ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 forest rec income Forested land used for income from land rented out for recreation purposes (e.g., hunting, fishing, motorized recreation) ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 forest personal Forested land used for personal recreation (hunting, fishing, motorized recreation, hiking, solitude) ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 forest other Forested land used for other purposes ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a12 expl forest other Forested land used for other purposes_explain ( text )
a13 rural land in conservation easement ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a14 rural land located within a forest reserve ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a15 Landowenr had a written forest management plan ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a16 Landowner used forested land to graze livestock ( 1=yes, 0=no )
a17 age of largest tract of mixed forest ( 1=less than 5 years, 2=6-10 years, 3=more than 10 years )
a18 age of largest tract of single species tree plantation ( 1=less than 5 years, 2=6-10 years, 3=more than 10 years )
a19a I would rent out land for agricultural production if offered a satisfactory economic return. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19b I would rent out land for the establishment of a tree plantation if offered a satisfactory economic return. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19c My family or friends would dislike it if I rented out my rural land to grow crops or harvest timber. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19d I would be willing to sell my rural land if I knew it was going to be used for growing crops or timber harvesting. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19e I would be willing to sell my rural land if I knew it was going to be used for recreation (e.g., hunting, fishing). ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19f I would be willing to sell my rural land if I knew it was going to be used for development (i.e., built structures). ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19g I would never sell the rural land that I own. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19h I plan to sell most of my rural land within the next 10 years. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19i I plan to pass my rural land onto an heir or other family member within the next 10 years. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19j I plan to subdivide part or all of my rural land within the next 10 years. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19k I plan to reforest part of my rural land within the next 10 years. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19l I plan to convert most of my land to another use within the next 10 years. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19m Within the past 10 years, I converted land from cropland into grassland or forest. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
a19n Within the past 10 years, I converted land from grassland into forest. ( 1=yes, 0=no, 2=uncertain )
b1 Landowner has heard of bioenergy ( 1=yes, 0=no )
b2 Landowner knows that ethanol could be produced from other plant-based materials such as grasses in addition to corn ( 1=yes, 0=no )
b3a Landowenr is aware that corn residues could be used for bioenergy feedstock ( 1=yes, 0=no )
b3b Landowenr is aware that switchgrass could be used for bioenergy feedstock ( 1=yes, 0=no )
b3c Landowenr is aware that hybrid poplar trees could be used for bioenergy feedstock ( 1=yes, 0=no )
b3d Landowenr is aware that forest slash could be used for bioenergy feedstock ( 1=yes, 0=no )
b4a Landowner has seen a pile or bale of corn residues ( 1=yes, 0=no )
b4b Landowner has seen a field of switchgrass ( 1=yes, 0=no )
b4c Landowner has seen a row of hybrid poplar trees ( 1=yes, 0=no )
b4d Landowner has seen a pile of forest slash ( 1=yes, 0=no )
c1a decision of whether to rent cropland for corn ( 1= yes, 2=no, I do not own that land type, 3=no, I would rent if the rent were higher, 4= no, never rent this type of land , 0=no, with no subset selected )
c1b Acres willing to rent of cropland for corn if decision was yes ( acres )
c2a decision of whether to rent farmable non-cropland land for corn ( 1= yes, 2=no, I do not own that land type, 3=no, I would rent if the rent were higher, 4= no, never rent this type of land , 0=no, with no subset selected )
c2b Acres willing to rent of farmable non-cropland for corn if decision was yes ( acres )
c3a Decision of whether to rent forested land for corn ( 1= yes, 2=no, I do not own that land type, 3=no, I would rent if the rent were higher, 4= no, never rent this type of land , 0=no, with no subset selected )
c3b Acres willing to rent of forested land for corn if decision was yes ( acres )
c4a decision of whether to rent cropland for switchgrass ( 1= yes, 2=no, I do not own that land type, 3=no, I would rent if the rent were higher, 4= no, never rent this type of land , 0=no, with no subset selected )
c4b Acres willing to rent of cropland for switchgrass if decision was yes ( acres )
c5a decision of whether to rent farmable non-cropland land for switchgrass ( 1= yes, 2=no, I do not own that land type, 3=no, I would rent if the rent were higher, 4= no, never rent this type of land , 0=no, with no subset selected )
c5b Acres willing to rent of farmable non-cropland for switchgrass if decision was yes ( acres )
c6a Decision of whether to rent forested land for switchgrass ( 1= yes, 2=no, I do not own that land type, 3=no, I would rent if the rent were higher, 4= no, never rent this type of land , 0=no, with no subset selected )
c6b Acres willing to rent of forested land for switchgrass if decision was yes ( acres )
c7a decision of whether to rent cropland for hybrid poplar ( 1= yes, 2=no, I do not own that land type, 3=no, I would rent if the rent were higher, 4= no, never rent this type of land, 0=no, with no subset selected )
c7b Acres willing to rent of cropland for hybrid poplar if decision was yes ( acres )
c8a decision of whether to rent farmable non-cropland land for hybrid poplar ( 1= yes, 2=no, I do not own that land type, 3=no, I would rent if the rent were higher, 4= no, never rent this type of land , 0=no, with no subset selected )
c8b Acres willing to rent of farmable non-cropland for hybrid poplar if decision was yes ( acres )
c9a Decision of whether to rent forested land for hybrid poplar ( 1= yes, 2=no, I do not own that land type, 3=no, I would rent if the rent were higher, 4= no, never rent this type of land , 0=no, with no subset selected )
c9b Acres willing to rent of forested land for hybrid poplar if decision was yes ( acres )
c10 Decision of wheter to agree with contract offer to remove woody biomass at next timber harvest ( 1= yes, 2=no, no plans to harvest timber, 3=no, I would sell if the payment were higher, 4= no, never sell woody biomass , 0=no, with no subset selected )
c11 Decision of wheter to agree with contract offer to remove woody biomass at next stand improvement ( 1= yes, 2=no, no plans for stand improvement, 3=no, I would sell if the payment were higher, 4= no, never sell woody biomass , 0=no, with no subset selected )
d1a Developing renewable energy (e.g., wind, solar, bioenergy, hydro-electrical) is important to our nation’s future. ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d1b Bioenergy should be prioritized over other forms of renewable energy such as wind or solar power. ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d1c Burning bioenergy feedstocks to generate electricity instead of burning coal is worth the extra cost. ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d1d Substituting bioenergy feedstocks for fossil fuels will help mitigate climate change. ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d1e Growing bioenergy feedstocks on cropland will increase competition with food needs. ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d1f Increased bioenergy feedstock production will result in significant forest loss. ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d1g Government should allow regular harvesting of public forest land and CRP land for bioenergy purposes. ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d1h Biodiversity should be maintained when land use is changed. ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d1i Liquid biofuels are a promising alternative energy technology that will be succesful in the future. ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d1j The use of fossil fuels can be harmful to human health and the environment. ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d1k The world will run out of fossil fuels (e.g., oil, natural gas) in the next 50 to 120 years. ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2a The potential smell ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2b Noise from harvesting, planting, or other activities ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2c Potential legal costs of contracting ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2d The length of the contract ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2e The possible need for insurance ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2f Having other people on my land ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2g The land changing in a way that I can no longer use it as I want ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2h How profitable it will be ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2i A lack of information about the potential feedstocks ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2j The use of pesticide and fertilizer on my land ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2k The loss of biodiversity on my land (e.g., insects, birds, mammals, plants, etc) ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
d2l The risk of lower soil and water quality ( 1= strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3= uncertain, 4= agree, 5= strongly agree )
e1 age ( integer (years) )
e2 male gender ( 1=male, 0=female )
e3 household members ( integer (members) )
e4 The respondant is a farmer or do farm work ( 1=yes, 0=no )
e5 household income ( 1= less than $25,000; 2= $25.000 to $49,999; 3= $50,000 to $99,999; 4= $100.000 to $149,999; 5= $150,000 to $199,999; 6= $200,000 and above )
e6 education ( 1= less than 12 years, 2= completed high school or GED, 3= some college (including AA, AS degrees), 4= 4-year college degree, 5= some graduate work, 6= graduate degree )
e7 ag Land zoned for agricultural use ( 1=yes, 0=no )
e7 res Land zoned for residential use ( 1=yes, 0=no )
e7 ind Land zoned for industrial use ( 1=yes, 0=no )
e7 for Land zoned for forest use ( 1=yes, 0=no )
e7 not Land not restricted by zoning ( 1=yes, 0=no )
e7 unc I am uncertain ( 1=yes, 0=no )
e8 duration of land ownership ( number (years) )
e9 rural land controlled by another family member before you became owner ( 1=yes, 0=no )
e10 residence on rural land ( 1=yes, 0=no )
e10a weeks/year to spend at this residence ( integer (weeks) )
e11 ZIP code of permanent residence ( integer )
e12 crop If rented out cropland in last 2 years what was the most common rental rate ( integer ($/acre) )
e12 pasture If rented out pasture in last 2 years what was the most common rental rate ( integer ($/acre) )
e12 forest If rented out forest in last 2 years what was the most common rental rate ( integer ($/acre) )
comments
notes

Data Excerpt

id coder price_corn price_switch price_poplar price_slash 1_own10 2_maindec a1_county a1_comment a2 a3 a4 a4a a5 a5a a6 a7 a8 a8a a9_corn a9_soy a9_wheat a9_other_row_crops a9_hay_rot a9_fruit a9_fallow a9_other_cropland a9_expl_other_cropland a9_hay_cont a9_livestock_pasture a9_open_grass a9_shrub a9_other_noncrop a9_mx_forest a9_single_spec a9_other_forest a9_expl_other_forest a9_other_rural a9_other_other a9_expl_other_other a10_crp a10_csp a10_eqip a10_mfl a10_cf a10_qf a10_other_prog a10_expl_other_prog a11 a11a a11b a11c a12_ag_ag_income a12_ag_rec_income a12_ag_personal a12_ag_other a12_expl_ag_other a12_farm_ag_income a12_farm_rec_income a12_farm_personal a12_farm_other a12_expl_farm_other a12_forest_ag_income a12_forest_rec_income a12_forest_personal a12_forest_other a12_expl_forest_other a13 a14 a15 a16 a17 a18 a19a a19b a19c a19d a19e a19f a19g a19h a19i a19j a19k a19l a19m a19n b1 b2 b3a b3b b3c b3d b4a b4b b4c b4d c1a c1b c2a c2b c3a c3b c4a c4b c5a c5b c6a c6b c7a c7b c8a c8b c9a c9b c10 c11 d1a d1b d1c d1d d1e d1f d1g d1h d1i d1j d1k d2a d2b d2c d2d d2e d2f d2g d2h d2i d2j d2k d2l e1 e2 e3 e4 e5 e6 e7_ag e7_res e7_ind e7_for e7_not e7_unc e8 e9 e10 e10a e11 e12_crop e12_pasture e12_forest comments notes
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