Kosola, K. R., D. M. Durall, G. P. Robertson, D. I. Dickmann, D. Parry, C. A. Russell, and E. A. Paul. 2004. Resilience of mycorrhizal fungi on defoliated and fertilized hybrid poplars. Canadian Journal of Botany 82:671-680.
We examined the effects of fertilization and gypsy moth defoliation of hybrid poplar (Populus X canadensis Moench ‘Eugenei’) on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization, ECM richness, and ECM composition in the summers of 1997 and 1998. The factorial experiment included two levels of defoliation (defoliated and control) and fertilization (100 kg N.ha(-1) and control). Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) populations were manipulated to obtain defoliation in the summer of 1996, 1997, and 1998; fertilization subplots were fertilized with NH4NO3 (100 kg N.ha(-1)) in the spring of these years. There were no significant effects of defoliation on ECM or AM colonization in either year; there was a significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) decline in AM colonization in fertilized plots in 1997 and a significant interaction between defoliation and fertilization effects on ECM colonization in 1997. In the nondefoliated plots, ECM fungal colonization increased, whereas AM colonization decreased because of fertilization. In the defoliated plots, neither ECM nor AM colonization was affected by fertilization. ECM community composition and richness were unchanged by any treatment. The small and transient effects of defoliation and fertilization on poplar AMs and ECMs demonstrate the tolerance of these early-successional trees to defoliation and their ability to rapidly use high levels of available nitrogen.
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