Khosrozadeh, S., A. Guber, A. Kravchenko, N. Ghaderi, and E. Blagodatskaya. 2022. Soil oxidoreductase zymography: Visualizing spatial distributions of peroxidase and phenol oxidase activities at the root-soil interface. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 167:108610.

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Decomposition of organic material in the rhizosphere – the most dynamic microbial habitat in soil – involves arrays of oxidoreductase and hydrolytic enzymes. Spatial distributions of various hydrolytic activities in soil have already been explored by zymographic techniques. However, the distribution of oxidative activity in the rhizosphere remains to be studied. Thus, we extended a Time-Lapse Zymography technique, using Amplex Red® reagent, to visualize and quantify distributions of phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities in the rhizosphere of Zea mays L. growing in a Haplic Phaeozem and the non-rhizospheric soil. The gross oxidative activity was greatest at the root surfaces, and fell to background soil levels 1.26 and 0.73 mm from seminal (>1 mm diameter) and lateral (<0.5 mm diameter) roots, respectively. The rhizosphere extent relative to the root radius was 59% broader around lateral than around seminal roots. The greatest activities, up to 30 nmol cm−2 min−1, were peroxidase-dominated and closely associated with roots. The results confirm the utility of the approach for studying spatio-temporal distributions of oxidative activities in soil. However, actual activity of oxidoreductases in the field will be strongly controlled by fluctuating environmental conditions such as soil aeration and the gradient of reactive oxygen species, which need to be considered especially in anoxic soils.

DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2022.108610

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